Prevalence[ edit ] Obesity rates have increased for all population groups in the United States over the last several decades.
Overview[ edit ] Executive functioning is a theoretical construct representing a domain of cognitive processes that regulate, control, and manage other cognitive processes. Executive functioning is not a unitary concept; it is a broad description of the set of processes involved in certain areas of cognitive and behavioural control.
Executive dysfunction does occur to a minor degree in all individuals on both short-term and long-term scales. In non-clinical populations, the activation of executive processes appears to inhibit further activation of the same processes, suggesting a mechanism for normal fluctuations in executive control.
Executive dysfunction, particularly in working memory capacity, may also lead to varying degrees of emotional dysregulation, which can manifest as chronic depressionanxietyor hyperemotionality. Learning and development of long-term memory play a role in the severity of executive dysfunction through dynamic interaction with neurological characteristics.
Studies in cognitive neuroscience suggest that executive functions are widely distributed throughout the brain, though a few areas have been isolated as primary contributors. Executive dysfunction is studied extensively in clinical neuropsychology as well, allowing correlations to be drawn between such dysexecutive symptoms and their neurological correlates.
In the case of acquired brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases there is a clear neurological etiology producing dysexecutive symptoms.
Conversely, syndromes and disorders are defined and diagnosed based on their symptomatology rather than etiology. A common assumption is that disrupted executive control processes are associated with pathology in prefrontal brain regions.
According to Friedman et al. Although a trained non-professional working outside of an institutionalized Executive summary on childhood obesity can legally and competently perform many of these measures, a trained professional administering the test in a standardized setting will yield the most accurate results.
It is relatively easy to train non-professional staff to administer a CDT. After the task is complete, the test administrator draws a clock with the hands set at the same specific time.
Then the patient is asked to copy the image. Stroop task[ edit ] The cognitive mechanism involved in the Stroop task is referred to as directed attention.
The Stroop task requires the participant to engage in and allows assessment of processes such as attention management, speed and accuracy of reading words and colours and of inhibition of competing stimuli. For example, the word "red" is written in a blue font. In the aforementioned example, this would require the participant to say "blue" when presented with the stimulus.
Although the majority of people will show some slowing when given incompatible text versus font colour, this is more severe in individuals with deficits in inhibition. The Stroop task takes advantage of the fact that most humans are so proficient at reading colour words that it is extremely difficult to ignore this information, and instead acknowledge, recognize and say the colour the word is printed in.
The participants are then given a pile of additional cards and are asked to match each one to one of the previous cards. Typically, children between ages 9 and 11 are able to show the cognitive flexibility that is needed for this test.
Part B differs from Part A specifically in that it assesses more complex factors of motor control and perception. The task is also timed as a means of assessing speed of processing.
Clinical presentation of severe executive dysfunction that is unrelated a specific disease or disorder is classified as a dysexecutive syndromeand often appears following damage to the frontal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
It has been assessed and researched extensively in relation to cognitive developmental disorders, psychotic disordersaffective disordersand conduct disordersas well as neurodegenerative diseases and acquired brain injury ABI.
Environmental dependency syndrome is a dysexecutive syndrome marked by significant behavioural dependence on environmental cues and is marked by excessive imitation and utilization behaviour. Observed damage to explicit, consciously accessed, memory is generally attributed to the fragmented thoughts that characterize the disorder.
However, implicit memory is generally preserved in patients with schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia demonstrate spared performance on measures of visual and verbal attention and concentration, as well as on immediate digit span recall, suggesting that observed deficits cannot be attributed to deficits in attention or short-term memory.
Working memory and multi-tasking impairments typically characterize the disorder. However, performance on tasks associated with the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad are typically less affected. Individuals with ADHD often experience problems with organization, discipline, and setting priorities, and these difficulties often persist from childhood through adulthood.
Although ADHD has typically been conceptualized in a categorical diagnostic paradigm, it has also been proposed that this disorder should be considered within a more dimensional behavioural model that links executive functions to observed deficits.
Autism spectrum disorder[ edit ] Autism is diagnosed based on the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activities and interests. It is a disorder that is defined according to behaviour as no specific biological markers are known.TXCLPPP maintains a surveillance system of blood lead results on children younger than 15 years of age.
Texas law requires reporting of blood lead tests, elevated and non-elevated, for children younger than 15 years of leslutinsduphoenix.comians, laboratories, hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities must report all blood lead tests to the Texas .
Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care swEdEn Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits – for children, parents and. Executive Summary on Childhood Obesity Essay Executive Summary on Childhood Obesity Wilma J.
Barboza - RN, BSN February 3, Executive Summary on Childhood Obesity Childhood obesity is one of the root causes affecting millions of young population today. The Obesity page contains articles and information from the New England Journal of Medicine.
Obesity. The prevalence of obesity in England is increasing at all ages; almost two-thirds of adults and one-third of children are either overweight or obese. Overweight and obese children are at higher risk of developing serious health problems including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, asthma and other respiratory problems, sleep disorders and liver disease.
They may also suffer from psychological effects, such as low self-esteem, depression and social isolation. Childhood obesity also increases the risk of obesity.