Hire Writer The Swiss were made rich by loaning out their excellent fighters as Mercenaries.
Hire Writer Through the Welsh Wars the English became acquainted with, and adopted the highly efficient longbow. The introduction of gunpowder affected the conduct of war significantly. Through the Battle of Crecy infirearms initially had little effect in the field of battle.
It was through the use of cannons as siege weapons that major change was brought about; the new methods would eventually change the architectural structure of fortifications.
Changes also took place within the recruitment and composition of armies. The use of the national or feudal levy was gradually replaced by paid troops of foreign mercenaries.
All over Europe, Swiss soldiers were in particularly high demand. At the same time, the period also saw the emergence of the first permanent armies. Reform movements Though the Catholic Church had long fought against heretic movements, in the Late Middle Ages, it started to experience demands for reform from within.
The first of these came from the Oxford professor John Wyclif in England. Wycliffe held that the Bible should be the only authority in religious questions, and spoke out against transubstantiation, celibacy and indulgences.
In spite of influential supporters among the English aristocracy, such as John of Gaunt, the movement was not allowed to survive. Trade and commerce Portuguese and Spanish explorers found new trade routes — south of Africa to India, and across the Atlantic Ocean to America.
As Genoese and Venetian merchants opened up direct sea routes with Flanders, the Champagne fairs lost much of their importance. Among the innovations of the period were new forms of partnership and the issuing of insurance, both of which contributed to reducing the risk of commercial ventures; the bill of exchange and other forms of credit that circumvented the canonical laws for gentiles against usury, and eliminated the dangers of carrying bullion; and new forms of accounting, in particular double-entry bookkeeping, which allowed for better oversight and accuracy.
With the financial expansion, trading rights became more jealously guarded by the commercial elite.
Towns saw the growing power of guilds, while on a national level special companies would be granted monopolies on particular trades, like the English wool Staple.
The beneficiaries of these developments would accumulate immense wealth.
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History of Europe - The Middle Ages: The period of European history extending from about to – ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.
The period is often considered to have its own internal divisions: either early and late or early. History Essay- The Middle Ages. ‘The Flea that destroyed feudalism’ Why has the Black Death been referred to as this?
The Black Death was a deadly disease that entered Europe in the year It came from Central Asia, carried along trade routes by the fleas on rats.
The extent of their legal, economic, political power, and access to education were the criteria by which they were assessed upon.
Lay women were divided into different stages of . We will write a custom essay sample on Late Middle Ages specifically for you for only $ $/page. Order now Though the Catholic Church had long fought against heretic movements, in the Late Middle Ages, it started to experience demands for reform from within.
The first of these came from the Oxford professor John Wyclif in England. History of Europe - The Middle Ages: The period of European history extending from about to – ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire.