Guidelines for Storage of Liquid Fats General Guidelines Air, heat, light, and age affect the quality and the shelf life of many types of edible oils, which deteriorate through oxidation rancidity. The oxidation process is greatly enhanced when edible oils are stored in containers that are not air tight and in areas where the oil is exposed to heat and light. If improperly stored, some oils can easily take on other flavors.
As natural personal care products rise in demand, altering feels and physical properties of natural oils and fats through cosmetic chemistry become paramount.
A popular approach has been altering the physical properties of natural oils or fats to achieve butters that are spreadable on skin. These butters posses attributes that are different from traditional solids and liquids in that they are solid when applied but liquefy under pressure.
Butters have become more and more important in personal care products, especially when the formulator desires materials that incorporate natural oils in a formulation requiring a solid form. Typically, butters are either natural or chemically altered oils or fats. The most common chemical alteration is a simple process called hydrogenation.
Natural Butters Natural butters are materials that are produced from a natural source and are not chemically modified. Natural butters are extracted and refined by chemists; however, unlike hydrogenation, no chemical modification is made to the molecule.
There are a number of naturally occurring butters including shea butter and cocoa butter. These materials are butters by virtue of their fatty compositions. Shea butter, a natural fat extracted from the nut of the African shea tree, is widely used in the cosmetic field as a moisturizersalve or lotion.
There are many natural oils that have a wide composition of materials and are liquids.
These materials have a degree of unsaturation in the alkyl group of the triglyceride. Natural oils can be monosaturated or polysaturated, meaning they have one or many degrees of unsaturation. The steric hindrance of the double bond or bonds prevents the molecules from packing closely together and becoming solid.
Hydrogenated Butters Excerpt Only This is a shortened version or summary of the article you requested. To view the complete article, please log in or create an account. Hydrogenation changes the chemical structure of the materials in the oil and results in the conversion of liquid oil to a solid or semi-solid fat.
The most common example of this margarine. Changing the fat's degree of saturation alters some important physical properties such as the melting range, which is why liquid oils become semi-solid. Trans fats are produced by chemical modification and have been found to be unhealthy in diets.
Gelation Additives Another approach to making butters is to add gelation agents. These additives will provide structure to natural oils and make them into butters.
These materials will be addressed in a subsequent "Comparatively Speaking" column. Butters in Formulation In the cosmetic field, formulation chemists have a tricky task ahead of them.
The overall goal is to find a product that has the correct physical characteristics but is green. Natural oils like olive and soybean are used as solvents and natural additives in cosmetic products.
The major advantage in using natural oils is that they are renewable and generally mild. Conversely, their rheological properties are typically weak, and the product has to be refined to improve its rheological properties. When these oils are added into a chemical formulation, they will weaken the structural integrity of the product.Use naturally occurring, unhydrogenated vegetable oils such as canola, safflower, sunflower or olive oil most often.
Look for processed foods made with unhydrogenated oil rather than partially hydrogenated or hydrogenated vegetable oils or saturated fat. Transfer hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen (H 2; dihydrogen in inorganic and organometallic chemistry) to a molecule from a source other than gaseous H 2.
It is applied in industry and in organic synthesis, in part because of the inconvenience and expense of using gaseous H 2.
Exp’t Catalytic Hydrogenation of Olive Oil Adapted by R. Minard (Penn State Univ.) from K. L.
Williamson, Macroscale and Microscale Organic Experiments, 2nd Ed. , pipet, transfer the reaction mixture into the filter pipet and allow the solution to filter through the cotton to remove the charcoal. If necessary, force the.
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Hydrogenated fat is created by bubbling hydrogen through to degree hot vegetable oil in the presence of a metal catalyst, usually nickel or platinum. The process can take several hours. Oleic acid (C) and linoleic acid (C) are both converted to stearic acid (C) when fully saturated, but fully saturated fats are too waxy and solid .